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Posts tagged ‘cyber’

Cyber military challenges demand serious US policy

Richard Clarke

Richard Clarke

By Richard Clarke
Faculty Affiliate, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

We once discussed thermonuclear war strategy in the public forum. Numbers and types of nuclear weapons were the grist for Cambridge seminars. Because of that open process, we arrived at a nuclear war strategy that averted disaster.

Few people in the Obama Administration are old enough to remember all of that. Perhaps that is why they are insisting on secrecy in the development of cyber war strategy. The Pentagon’s recent cyber military strategy is an insult to its readers. I explain why I think so in this oped from Sunday’s Boston Globe

Richard Clarke, an adjunct faculty member at Harvard’s Kennedy School, is author of “Cyber War.’’ He was special adviser on cyber security to President George W. Bush.

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The U.S. needs a real national cyber-security strategy

Joseph S. Nye

Joseph S. Nye

By Joseph S. Nye

The Pentagon recently released a new doctrine for cyberspace. It is an intelligent document that stresses defense, and reserves the right to reply to a cyber attack by the means of our choice. But for all its virtues, it is not a national strategy, because ninety percent of the internet is outside the purview of the military.

Four decades ago, the Pentagon created the internet, and today, by most accounts, the U.S.remains the leading country in both its military and societal use. However, technology is a two-edged sword. It eventually spreads, and becomes available to adversaries who may have primitive capabilities, but also are less vulnerable. At the same time, because of our greater dependence on networked computers and communication, the U.S.is more vulnerable than many other countries, and the cyber domain has become a major source of insecurity that can be utilized byAmerica’s enemies. Read more

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China’s hacking drains US economic power

By Richard Clarke

By Richard Clarke

There has always been industrial espionage, and sometimes it has involved governments spying on behalf of their home industries. In the last decade, however, China has stretched that practice to the point where it threatens the international economic system. By harnessing the power of the Internet and engaging in systematic, global industrial espionage on a massive scale, China’s cyber spies have made a mockery of international protections of intellectual property rights and patents.

Despite the seemingly cutthroat nature of global commerce and competition, there are rules. Without them, customs and tariffs would drive prices too high for trade to occur. Without rules of the road, product counterfeiting would be even more rife, labor conditions more heinous, and capital repatriation more problematic in much of the world. Through a variety of multilateral conventions and international organizations, notably the World Trade Organization (WTO), the fiercest economic competitors in global trade have found a way to cooperate and to define what is fair and what is out of bounds. Read more

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Cyber Security at the Munich Security Conference

By Joseph S. Nye

By Joseph S. Nye

Last weekend, I chaired a panel at the Munich Security Conference on cyber security. This is the first time the venerable gathering has addressed the issue. German Chancellor Angela Merkel discussed it, and British Foreign Secretary William Hague devoted nearly his whole speech to Britain’s new cyber strategy. Until recently, the issue of cyber security has largely been the domain of computer geeks and specialists. When the internet was created forty years ago, this small community was like a virtual village of people who knew each other, and they designed a system with little attention to security. Even the commercial Web is only two decades old. Security experts wrestling with cyber issues are at about the same stage in understanding the implications of this new technology as nuclear experts were in the early years after the first nuclear explosions. Read more

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Software Power: Cyber warfare is the risky new frontline

By Richard Clarke

By Richard Clarke

In the late 19th century, American Admiral Alfred Mahan described the rise of sea power and its relationship to a nation’s global strength.  In the early 20th century Italian General Giulio Douhet was first to develop theories about the essentiality of air power to future military superiority. Today America’s “cyber warriors” have begun to talk about the need for their nation to be the “dominant” cyber war power in order to be assured of continued global military superiority.

Although no Mahan or Douhet has yet emerged, America’s cyber generals have described cyberspace as a domain similar to sea, air, and outer space as a potential battleground. In some documents, the cyber warriors have admitted that without dominance in cyberspace, a military power will likely lose the battle in the other domains. With that in mind, the US Navy has created a new 10th Fleet, to accompany the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean and the 7th Fleet in the Pacific.  The 10th Fleet will fight in cyberspace. A new US Cyber Command will coordinate Navy, Army, and Air Force cyber warriors. Read more

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Power and Policy in An Information Age

By Joseph S. Nye

By Joseph S. Nye

As authoritarian Arab regimes struggle with Twitter and Al Jazeera inflamed-demonstrations; Iran tries to cope with the cyber sabotage of its nuclear enrichment program; and American diplomats try to understand the impact of Wikileaks, it is clear that smart policy in an information age will need a more sophisticated understanding of power in world politics.

That is the argument of my new book The Future of Power. Two types of power shifts are occurring in this century – power transition and power diffusion. Power transition from one dominant state to another is a familiar historical event, but power diffusion is a more novel process. The problem for all states in today’s global information age is that more things are happening outside the control of even the most powerful states. In the words of Richard Haass, president of the Council on Foreign Relations (and once a faculty member at the Kennedy School),  “the proliferation of information is as much a cause of nonpolarity as is the proliferation of weaponry.” Read more

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