The death of Muammar Qadhafi is the decisive event in the nine-month civil war in Libya. In the minds of most Libyans, the war could not end without his departure from the country or death on the battlefield.
As British Prime Minister Cameron reminded us today, it is important to remember Qadhafi’s many victims, including the hundreds of Americans and other nationals who died in the Lockerbie terrorist attack of December 1988. Qadhafi was a tyrant who ruled mercilessly for over forty years and left most of the people of his oil-rich country impoverished. His brutal, authoritarian rule extinguished all independent movements and denied the building over time of the civil society organizations that are the foundation of most countries and all democracies.
That is a critical fact in assessing the fate of the Libyan revolution going forward. While his death will likely effectively end the violent loyalist counter-revolution of the last few months, it will not quell all of those who still contest the revolution and wish to see it reversed.
The new Libyan government now has a chance to try to end the violence and begin the rebuilding of Libya’s shattered cities and villages. But, the challenges ahead will be extraordinarily difficult. Tribal divisions, encouraged by Qadhafi’s cynical rule, will not be easily resolved. Restarting oil production, opening up the Mediterranean ports and rushing humanitarian aid to the displaced will be immediate priorities.
Above all, creating jobs for the young unemployed who were the heart of the rebel alliance will be an immediate priority as will be disarming the loose alliance of militias that defeated Qadhafi.
The international community must now act quickly to provide the essential outside support that will help to jumpstart the new government. Libya will need a suppply of humanitarian goods, expanded trade credits and longer-term economic assistance. It will benefit from political support as the new goverment works through a constitution, future elections and internal reconciliation.
The United States, Europe and key Asian countries must certainly help in a major way. But, the Arab League should take the lead in rushing the immediate support the Libyan government will require to unite the country and turn it away from violence and toward reconstruction.
Today’s dramatic events confirm the wisdom of NATO’s decision, with UN and Arab League blessing, to intervene in the early stage of the civil war on behalf of the Libyan people’s army. NATO made the critical difference in denying Qadhafi’s forces use of airpower and in blocking and preventing a likely bloody siege of Benghazi. The British and French leaders deserve great credit for leading the NATO effort.
President Obama was surely right to commit the United States, however reluctantly, to the NATO campaign. The Libya operation, like President Clinton’s interventions in Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s, demonstrates that when our powerful NATO forces are used for a precise mission with a clear and specific mandate and result, we can help to liberate others without the debilitating long-term occupations that have characterized our bitter ventures in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this sense, today’s liberation of the Libyan people from Qadhafi’s terrible and bloody reign, is a victory for NATO too.
The first, critical phase of the Libyan civil war is over. The next phase of building a new nation and new identity will be just as important and perhaps even more difficult than driving the dictator from power.